Two papers caught my eye recently that have taken advantage of the proliferation of whole genome sequencing techniques in recent years. With prices of sequencing whole genomes coming down and down, biologists are having access to vast amounts of data. The 1000 Genomes Project was one of the first to collect the vast amounts of human genome data into a story that told of human population origins. The two papers that I saw recently extend this story. One provides data from nearly 1500 people throughout the entire world to trace the genetic legacies of Ghengis Khan and Alexander the Great. The other delves deeper into the dawn of homo sapiens in Africa, over 300 whole genomes and nearly 1500 genotypes – the African Genome Project.
Genomic parasites – we all have them but how are they kept under control?
You may think you are parasite free. “No malaria, bilharzia or tapeworms in me”, I hear you say… If you think this you’re actually mistaken. Humans, and many organisms besides, carry parasites within their own DNA. These parasites have left behind the ‘traditional’ parasitic life cycle, with their own body or their own cell living within us and have gone purist, trimming everything away and simply copying their genome into ours, existing alongside us for as long as humans survive. Known as transposons, these genomic parasites use our own cells to survive, using our own machinery to copy themselves, replicating and surviving just as organisms endeavour to do on the land, in the air or in the sea. They could copy themselves all over our genome making even more copies of themselves but something prevents this, stopping the transposon from overwhelming our genome and killing us. Research from the University of Cambridge, the University of Nottingham, and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Centre in Seattle reveals why: Continue reading “Genomic parasites”